Abstracts of Master’s thesis

So far Wolaita Sodo University has enrolled 68 students in Master of Science in Human Nutrition, out of which 18 (26%) are females. To date 39 students have graduated from the program, among them 9 (23%) are females.

The abstracts of master thesis of the first, second and third batches are presented as follows.

2015 graduates

Amare Birhanu Mengistu 2015. Prevalence and factors associated with anaemia among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Hawassa City Governmental Health Institutions, Southern Ethiopia

Abstract

Back ground: Anemia during pregnancy is a major public health problem throughout the world, particularly the developing countries. The effect of anemia during pregnancy has been associated with major maternal and foetal complications. Even if the prevalence of anemia during pregnancy is reducing in Ethiopia, it is still of public health importance and also the associated factors are not well studied and addressed. Data on the prevalence and factors associated with anemia in Ethiopian pregnant women is remain scarce.

Objective: To assess the prevalence and factors associated with anemia among pregnant women attending ANC in governmental health Institutions, Hawassa city, Southern Ethiopia.

Methods: Institution based cross sectional study was conducted from February 16 to April 30/ 2015. A total of 630 pregnant women who attended ANC at Hawassa city governmental health institutions were included in the study. The data was collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire, and laboratory investigations. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS software Version 16.0.

Result: The overall prevalence of anemia using a cut off level of hemoglobin <11 g/dl was 24.4% and the majority of them (85.06%) were of the mild type (hemoglobin: 10-10.9 g/dl). Variables such as age >35 years, family size >5, not taking fruit after meal, gestational age (3rd TM), multi-gravidity, history of abortion, history of malarial attack, HIV infection and have intestinal parasite have shown a statistically significant association with anemia.

Conclusion: The overall prevalence of anemia in this study is high, it still remains public health important. Anemia during pregnancy is associated with age, family size, not taking fruit after meal, gestational age, multi-gravidity, history of abortion, history of malarial attack, HIV infection, and have intestinal parasite. Hawassa city administration health department should strengthen family planning promotion and service provision both in the health facilities and urban health extension program.

Ashebir Simon 2015. Nutritional status, dietary habits and factors associated with the nutritional status of lactating women from Humbo Woreda, Wolaita Zone, SNNPR.

Abstract

Background: Lactating mothers from resource limited countries are considered as nutritionally vulnerable groups. The physiologic condition due to the nursing process subjects lactating women to additional nutritional stresses. The present study of lactating mothers from Humbo woreda explores nutritional status and associated factors for lactating mothers.

Objective: To assess nutritional status, dietary habits and factors associated with the nutritional status of lactating women in Humbo Woreda, Wolaita zone, SNNPR Ethiopia.

Methodology: Community based cross sectional study was carried out on a sample of lactating women. A total of 724 women were selected from ten kebeles in the woreda. The women were selected by simple random sampling from each kebele based on their unique identification number. A structured and pretested questionnaire was used for data collection. Weight and height measurements were collected following standard anthropometric techniques. The collected data was coded, cleaned, and entered into Epi-INFO version 7.1.0 and then exported to SPSS version 20 windows program for further statistical analysis.

Results: Almost all, 720 (99.4%) of the study subjects did not avoid any food because of cultural/traditional reasons during lactation. About 67.7% of study participants did not take additional meals during lactation. The median dietary diversity score of study participants was 4 out of 9 food groups. The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency in the lactating women was 26.4%. Factors significantly associated with the nutritional status of the study participants as determined by BMI were multiparity (AOR:2.528 95%CI (1.558, 4.103), illness (AOR:1.657 95%CI (1.005, 2.733), cattle ownership (AOR: 3.917 95%CI (2.453, 6.254), birth spacing (AOR: 3.659 95%CI (2.345, 5.712), family size (AOR: 1.973 95%CI (1.168, 3.334), meal frequency(AOR: 1.946 95%CI (1.253, 3.02) and residence (AOR: 1.826 95%CI (1.067, 3.124).

Conclusion: Chronic energy deficiency was a serious problem of public health concern in lactating women from the study communities. Sustained health and nutrition education should be provided for lactating women and the community on dietary recommendations, disease prevention and family planning. Furthermore, income generating activities should be made to assure ownership of household assets like cattle ownership to prevent economical vulnerability of mothers. Further research is needed to evaluate micronutrient intake adequacy of lactating mothers.

 

Asmare Doboch Elore 2015. Malnutrition and associated factors among lactating mothers in Tembaro District, Southern Ethiopia

Abstract

Background: Malnutrition is a serious public health problem, particularly in developing countries. However, there is limited information on factors associated with nutritional status of lactating mother in low-income countries including Ethiopia.

Objective: To assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among lactating mothers in Tembaro district, Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region, Ethiopia.

Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 541 lactating mothers randomly selected from households. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, maternal characteristics, frequency of foods eaten and dietary diversity were collected using pre-tested structured questionnaires. Anthropometric measurements were taken from each mother using digital weighing scale and metallic height measuring following standardized techniques. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages and mean were used to present the study results. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with nutritional status of the mothers.

Results: The study showed that the prevalence of malnutrition in the study area was 25.1% (95% CI = 21.6, 29.0) and it is found to be moderate. Mothers who did not attend formal educational with (AOR=2.66, (95%CI=1.46-5.48)), Those mothers whose family size 8-10 with (AOR = 1.2, (95% CI= 1.06- 1.45)), frequency of meal for mothers who eat two times per day with (AOR = 2.9, (95% CI = 1.17-7.38)) , a mother who has no experience in pregnancy before with (AOR = 1.20, (95% CI =1.50-1.76)) , a mother whose age at first marriage 15-18 years with (AOR = 1.4, (95% CI =1.11-2.23)), a mother whose Antenatal Care follow-up during pregnancy less or equal to three times with (AOR= 2.01, (95%CI= 1.24-3.1)) , a mother who scores medium level dietary diversity score with (AOR = 4.2, (95% CI =3.06- 5.80)) found to be a significant factor for malnutrition status of mothers in the study area.

Conclusion: Malnutrition is a series public health problem in the study area. Therefore, sustainable proper dietary knowledge during lactation is needed in order to enhance health and nutrition outcomes of lactating mothers and their children. Proper family planning and the way how to follow-up antenatal care should be designed by concerned body.

Ayele Lenja 2015. Feeding practices of less than six months infants from Offa woreda,Wolaita Zone, SNNPR

Abstract

Background: Recognizing the importance of appropriate infant feeding practices on child survival and development, World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Child Fund (UNICEF) recommend exclusive breast feeding during the first 6 months of life, and initiation of breast feeding within one hour after birth. It is also recommended that whole colostrums must be fed and the use of bottles for feeding infants must be avoided. Identifying factors associated with exclusive breast feeding practice helps to increase its coverage and magnify its advantages through improved endorsement.

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the status and factors associated with infant feeding practices during the first six months of life in Offa woreda, Southern Ethiopia.

Methods: Community based cross sectional study design was employed. Data on infant feeding practices were collected from 396 households with children less than 6 months of age by trained interviewers using a pretested and structured questionnaire adopted from EDHS 2011, WHO standard and Ethiopia linkages modules. Data was entered and analyzed using Epi Info-3.5.1 and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version-16, respectively. Logistic regression model was used to identify factors influencing exclusive breast feeding.

Results: The prevalence of exclusive breast feeding was (78.0%), awareness of exclusive breast feeding was (85.6%), the prevalence of bottle feeding was (6.1%). About six percent of the infants were given pre-lacteal feeds (6.1%). Infants were fed cow milk (12.9%), formula (7.8%), water (8.5%), fruits and semisolids (1.5%) over 24 hour prior to the survey. Initiation of breast feeding immediately within one hour (AOR=2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.27), attending formal education (AOR=4; 95% CI: 2.20-7.25), awareness about benefits of exclusive breast feeding (AOR=6; 95% CI: 3.1-11.7); colostrum feeding (AOR=2.1; 95% CI: 1.11-4.27) were found to have significant associations with exclusive breast feeding.

Conclusions: Prevalence of exclusive breast feeding (78.0%) in study area was below the EBF prevalence of (90%) recommended by the WHO. The findings showed that the feeding practices of mothers were sub-optimal. Strategies on promoting exclusive breast feeding practice must focus on strengthening women’s education and awareness creation activities.

 

Biruk Tadesse 2015. Prevalence of underweight and associated factors among children aged 6-23 months in Gombora Woreda, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Abstract

Background: Child undernutrition is one of the major public health problems in the developing countries having a devastating effect on the lives of many children less than five years of age. However, its causes are multitude and not uniformly understood enough across the various parts of the world. Thorough understanding of these causes is required to design appropriate intervention. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Underweight and associated factors in Gombora Woreda, Southern Ethiopia.

Methods: A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted from March 07-April 07/ 2015 in Gombora Woreda Southern Ethiopia. A total of 597 households from Kebeles and villages were selected randomly by two-stage cluster sampling method. Epi Info software (version 3.5.4) was used for data entry and cleaning of then exported to SPSS (version 21.0) software packages for analysis. WHO anthro (version 3.2.2) was used to convert nutritional data into Z-scores of the indices; weight-for-age. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors of underweight.

Results: Prevalence of underweight among 6-23months old children was 41.9 %. Females (53.2%) were more underweight than males (46.8%). Children whose mothers are housewife were about 67% times less likely to be underweight compared to children with merchant mothers (AOR= 0.33; 0.11-0.91). Children aged 6-11months were 1.67 times more likely to be underweight than 12-23 months of children (AOR= 1.67; 1.04-2.67). Children who had cough in two weeks preceding the survey were 2.5 times more likely to be underweight than those children with no cough (AOR= 2.5; 1.33-4.74). Children whose household dispose domestic waste openly were 8.5 times more likely to be underweight than those households which burn their domestic waste properly (AOR= 8.5; 1.74-41.2)

Conclusion: The burden of underweight was high and important determinant factors for underweight were occupation of mothers (merchant mothers), child age 6-11months, having cough in the last two weeks before the survey and open disposal of domestic waste. Thus, efforts should be made on each specific factor for reducing underweight among 6-23 months of children in the study area by governmental and non-governmental organizations.

Debritu Nane 2015. Sub optimal breast feeding and associated factors among mothers of children less than six month in Soddo town, Southern Ethiopia  

Abstract

Background: Sub optimal breast feeding is a major contributor to infant and young child morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. High coverage with optimal breast feeding practices has possibly the only largest impact on child existence of all preventive interventions. Though, optimal breast feeding influenced by a number of factors limited studies documented on it and its associated factors in study area.

Objective: The objective of this study is to asses factors associated with sub optimal breast feeding among mothers of children under the age of 6 months.

Methods: Community based cross-sectional study was carried out from February to March 2015. A random sampling technique was used to select a sample of 423 participants. Data were collected using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire by face-to-face interview technique. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to check associations and control confounding.

Results: Finding revealed that more than half of mothers (57.4%) practiced non-exclusive breast feeding and 144 (34.3%) were initiated breast feeding after hour of delivery. Sub optimal breast feeding practice are still persists, use of prelacteal feeding, discarding of colostrums, and early complementation. Delayed initiation of breast feeding was significantly associated with not attending formal education (AOR = 9.69[95%CI: 2.80, 33.49]), Sex of child (AOR=1.86 [95%CI: 1.16, 2.99]) and information on recommendation of breast feeding [AOR (95%) = 2.72(1.62 – 4.58)] .

Mothers who had 0-6 month infant (AOR = 0.29[95%CI: 0.14, 0.60) who had no access to mass media (AOR= 2.3 [95 %CI:1.14, 4.6]) ,who did not got postnatal care (AOR = 1.77[95%CI: 1.01, 3.09]), who had female child(AOR=0.16(1.04, 2.48)) , and mothers who attended primary school (AOR=1.75[1.05, 2.93]) were more likely to practice non-exclusive breast feeding .

Conclusions: More than half of the respondents practiced sub optimal breast feeding in study area. Promotion of strong community based education and support to ensure optimal infant and young child feeding is recommended for the whole communities with health workers and community leaders to provide counseling and support related to infant and young child feeding practices.

Fekadu Merse 2015. IFA utilization and factors associated with IFA utilization among pregnant women attending anc at government health facilities and family guidance clinic in Hawassa City, South Ethiopia

Abstract

Background: Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder in the world and most prevalent in women of reproductive age. Iron supplementation is the most common strategy currently used to control iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in developing countries. But it is not clear whether women actually use the supplements.

Objective: To assess IFA utilization and factors associated with IFA utilization among pregnant women attending ANC at government health facilities and family guidance clinic in Hawassa city, South Ethiopia.

Methods: Facility based cross sectional survey was conducted in March /2015. Single and double population proportion was used to determine sample size. Consecutive sampling technique was used to select study units. Data was collected by pretested structured questionnaire by trained unemployed diploma nurses. Data was cleaned and checked for completeness and then entered in to Epi info 3.2.2 and exported to SPSS 16.o software for analysis. Predictors were found out using bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions.

Results: A total of 412 pregnant women who came to attend ANC at least for second time were interviewed in the seven health facilities. Our study showed that 333 (81%, 95% CI: 77.2 −84.8) pregnant women reported taking IFA supplement and high compliance was 37.7% (95%CI: 32.5-42.9). In multivariable analysis, side effect and low acceptance of supplement were significantly associated with high compliance to IFA supplementation (P < .05).

Conclusion: There was a relatively better level of high compliance towards IFA supplementation as compared to other national data. Pregnant women should be counseled regarding how to manage side effect of IFA supplement during ANC. Further research investigating acceptability of the supplements has to be done.

Habte Samuel Faltamo 2015. Household food insecurity and associated factors among households in Areka town, Southern Ethiopia

Abstract

Background: Food insecurity is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, do not have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. However, little is known about urban household food insecurity status and no published researches were found in the study area. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of assessing household food insecurity and associated factors in Areka Town.

Objective: To assess the Prevalence of household food insecurity and associated factors.

Methods: A community based cross-sectional survey design was used. All four kebeles of the town were included in sampling technique. Out of 27 Gots in the study area, 9 were selected by Simple random sampling. Then, Systematic sampling method was applied to select study participants using proportional allocation to population size. A total of 309 households were included in the study. Pretested structured questionnaire was used to interview household heads. Data were entered on to Epi Info version 3.5.3 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 for cleaning and further analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between each independent variable and the outcome variable. Multivariable analysis was used to control for all possible confounders and identify factors associated with household food insecurity using multivariable logistic regression. Level of statistical significance was declared at p- value ≤ 0.05.

Results: The study showed that 69.6 % (95% CI = 64.1, 75.2) of households were food insecure. Household food insecurity severity status was 34.3%(95% CI = 29.4,39.8), 31.7%(95% CI = 26.1,37.0) and 3.6%(95% CI = 1.9,5.8) for Mild, Moderate and Severe categories respectively. Household wealth index (AOR = 3.13, 95% CI = 1.42, 6.91), educational status (AOR = 4.70, 95% CI = 1.82, 12.12) of household heads, household’s monthly food expense (AOR = 2.70, 95% CI =1.48, 4.91) and age of household head (AOR = 2.11, 95% CI =1.12, 3.95) were factors significantly associated with household food insecurity.

Conclusion: The study found high prevalence of household food insecurity among households in Areka town. The main factors associated with household food insecurity were, age of household head, educational status of household head, household’s monthly food expenditure and wealth index of households. Since our study found socio-economic and demographic aspects as significant factors, integration of food security interventions at all levels by all relevant government organizations and other stakeholders is essential so as to reduce urban household food insecurity.

Malla Shone 2015. Magnitude of household food insecurity and its associated factors in West Abaya district, Gamo Goffa Zone, 2015  

Abstract

Background: Food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life”. Factors such as, gender, age, marital status, land size, family size, oxen, livestock ownership, modern farm input use and income of households were presumed to influence household food security status.

Most literature reviews showed facts, extent, causal or detriment factors and depth of the food insecurity problem commonly at the global, national, regional and to some extent at district levels, which might not be similar for all Ethiopian districts. Hence, the current study will be carried out with the aim of generating area specific information to answer the question „how much prevalent is the household‟s food insecurity problem and its associated factors among the households” in the study area?

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess magnitude of household food insecurity and its associated factors in West Abaya District, 2015.

Methods: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March, 2015. The study used cluster-sampling. Out of 24 kebeles in the district, nine kebeles were selected randomly, then from nine kebeles 15 gots were selected randomly. Hence a total of 779 households were included in this study. Data was collected using pre-tested structured questionnaires. Data were entered in to Epi info version 3.5.4 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 for analysis. Binary logistic and multivariable analyses were used to identify factors associated with food insecurity.

Results: Seven hundred seventy nine households were participated in this study giving a response rate of 100%.The study showed that 38.1% of HHs was food insecure. Factors associated with food insecurity were HHs headed by females (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.15, 3.74), older age (AOR =6.5, 95% CI: 3.5, 13), being without a spouse (AOR=2.6, 95 % CI: 1.53-4.3), larger family size (AOR= 2.4, 95 % CI: 1.7, 3.5) and small land ownership (AOR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.12, 3).

Conclusion: This study revealed that household food insecurity was moderate in the study area. Hence, proper attention should be given to increase food production and productivity of the farmers through improving better access and availability to improved agricultural technologies, strengthening family planning efforts and policies interventions to empower women.

 

Metekiya Begajo 2015. Food avoidance and factors associated with food avoidance among pregnant women attending Antenatal Clinic in Mareka woreda south west Ethiopia.

Abstract

Back ground: Food avoidance which comprises of food aversion and taboo is common during pregnancy especially in low income countries. Maternal under nutrition due to food avoidance leads to maternal underweight and this is a contributing factor for intra uterine growth retardation and finally leads to low birth weight or preterm birth. In Ethiopia, about two third (65%) averted at least one food item while a quarter (27%) avoided some foods due to food taboos in previous study.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and factors associated with food avoidance among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic (ANC), in Mareka woreda.

Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study conducted in Mareka woreda, South west Ethiopia from Jan. 20/2015 to Mar. 20/2015. Samples were taken from each of 4 health centers based on the ANC attendant of 3 months before data collection in the catchment area and finally 383 pregnant women who came to the health center for routine ANC services during the study period were selected. Data were analyzed using SPSS16, and descriptive summary using frequencies, proportions and crosstabs were used.

Results: From 372 study participants 213 (57.3%) had avoided at least one food item during pregnancy. From this only 6% were avoided due to taboos/beliefs and 51.3% were avoided due to internal dislike developed during pregnancy or aversion. Pregnant women with health problem during pregnancy had 1.9 times higher odds of avoidance (AOR=1.9, 95%CI=1.12-3.63) compared to healthy pregnant women and pregnant women who craved for some food items were 5.9 times higher odds of avoidance (p<0.001; odds ratio 6.3 and 95% CI = 3.99-10.00) compared with those didn‟t craved for any food item.

Conclusion: Prevalence of pregnancy related food avoidance reported in the study area is high and in order to overcome this problem working on factors is important. Health problem during pregnancy was a contributing factor for food avoidance in the study area and health care during pregnancy is important to reduce the prevalence. Even though the prevalence of food taboo reported in the study area is low, health education is needed to change the beliefs that lead to food taboo.

 

Sinkenesh Tekalign Bekele 2015. Prevalence of overweight and obesity and associated factors among high school students in Hawassa City, Southern Ethiopia

Abstract

Background: Overweight and obesity refer to abnormal or excessive fat accumulation in humans. It has many adverse effects on the health and well-being of the individual. The effect of overweight and obesity in adolescence predict a broad range of adverse health effects in later adulthood including hypertension, type II diabetes, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, menstrual irregularity, in addition to psychological disturbances such as low self-esteem and depression. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents are increasing worldwide. Data on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Ethiopian adolescents remain scarce.

Objective: To assess the prevalence of overweight and obesity and associated factors among high school students in Hawassa City, Southern Ethiopia.

Methods: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 23 to March 5/ 2015 among 1109 high school students aged 15 to 19 years old. The study participants were included by using stratified sampling technique. The data was collected using self-administered structured questionnaire. Data entry and cleaning were done by using Epi-info version 3.2.2. Height and weight measurements were collected using standard anthropometric techniques by trained nurses. WHO Anthro plus software was used to determine the BMI z scores. Univariate, bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS software Version 16.0. P-values of less than 0.05 were taken as cut off point to declare that the association is statistically significant.

Results: The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 20.1%. When the data was further disaggregated, the proportion of overweight and obesity in adolescents was 18.2% and 1.9%, respectively. Learning in private school (AOR=1.80% CI: 1.316,2.486), female students (AOR=2.59,95%CI: 1.881, 3.586), age of 15 years old (AOR 2.049,95%CI: 1.041, 4.030), father’s education level greater than 12 grade (AOR=3.11,95%CI: 1.077,9.014), intake of eggs every other day and two times per week (AOR 2.695,95%CI: 1.144, 6.347) and(AOR= 2.268 95%CI:1.063, 4.840) respectively, taking oil, fat or butter (AOR 2.092,95%CI: 1.113, 3.932),mother’s body posture fatty (AOR 1.877,95%CI: 1.340, 2.628) and use of transportation mechanism (AOR 2.533,95%CI: 1.452, 4.418) were significant predictors of overweight/obesity in high school students from Hawassa city.

Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity was relatively high in high school adolescents from Hawassa City. Hence decreasing consumption of egg and fat, oil and butter and doing physical activity at school and at home regularly, especially in private school and female students could reduce risk of overweight and obesity is recommended.

 

Tesema Tega 2015. Adherence to recommended food intake in adult type two diabetic mellitus patients in Wolaita Zone

Abstract

Background: Diabetes is a condition in which the level of hyperglycemia giving rises to risk of micro vascular damage and associated with reduced life expectancy, significant morbidity due to specific diabetes related complications, increased risk of macro vascular complications. Appropriate dietary habit and adhering with recommended food intake prevent diabetic complications and death. To increase appropriate dietary habit and adherence to recommended food intake government and nongovernmental organizations carried different modalities to improve the health of diabetic patients in both developing and developed countries. However, there is little information and data concerning dietary habit and adherence to recommended food intake among diabetic patients.

Objective: Adherence to recommended food intake among type two Diabetic mellitus patients

Methodology: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2015 to May, 2015 on type two diabetic mellitus patients of Woliata zone. The final sample size was 481. Data analyses were done using EPI INFO and SPSS soft ware.

Results: 81 (16.8%) respondents were adhered to diabetic diet. There was a significant association between age of 31 and above[P=0.011, AOR (95%CI) =2.909(1.132-5.265)], marital status of married[P=0.002, AOR (95% CI) = 2.528(1.395-4.581 )], urban residence[p=.028,AOR(95%CI)=2.368 (1.092-4.817)], duration of diabetic mellitus 151-250 months [P=0.004,AOR(95%CI)=2.281(1.298-4.008)], and good knowledge [P=0.048,AOR(95%)=1.648 (1.007-5.903) ]with adherence to recommended food intake in type two diabetic patients .

Conclusion: The dietary practices of diabetic patients were inappropriate and adherence to diabetic diet was suboptimal so attention should be given and require improvement. To achieve life style changes and self-care practices, patients and health providers should work together.

Tesfahun Yonas 2015. Prevalence and associated factors for stunting among 6-12 years old school age children from rural community of Humbo district Wolaita zone, South Ethiopia

Abstract

Background: Stunting is a major public-health problem in low and middle-income countries, and it increases risk of morbidity and mortality during childhood. Stunting among children is a chronic problem in developing countries like Ethiopia.

Objective: To assess prevalence and associated factors for stunting among 6-12 years old school aged children from rural community in Humbo district, Wolaita Zone, SNNP regional state, Ethiopia. Methods: The study was cross-sectional in design involving school-age children aged 6-12 years in rural community of Humbo district. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 633 children from the selected households. Height was measured using standard methods and height for age Z-score was computed to assess stunting. Data were entered into Epi-info (version 3.5.4) statistical software then exported to SPSS version 20.0 statistical software and anthroplus software was used to determine height for age Z-score.

Results: Prevalence of stunting was 57%, out of which, 3.5% were severely stunted, 27.3% moderately stunted and 26.4% mildly stunted, and the mean (SD) was -1.1(±1.2). About 7(1.1%) boys and 15 (2.4%) girls were severely stunted. Age (AOR=1.7, 95% CI = 1.1 – 2.6); family size (AOR=4.6, 95% CI= 2.2 – 9.5) and field disposal of wastes (AOR=2.7, 95% CI = 1.2 – 5.8) were factors significantly associated with stunting.

Conclusion: This study showed high rate of stunting among school age children, especially age groups 10-12 years had significantly higher rate of stunting than others. Stunting remains a prominent feature of rural school age children. Findings suggest the need to implement evidence-based school-aged rural children nutrition policy and strategies as well as need for intervention to improve domestic waste management system in the rural community.

2016 graduates
Abate Areja 2015. Appropriate complementary feeding practice and associated factors among mothers/ caregivers in rural Damot-Sore Woreda, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Abstract
Background: Evidence indicated that only 4% of Ethiopian youngest children aged 6-23 months living with their mothers are fed appropriately. Identifying factors associated with appropriate complementary feeding practice helps to increase its coverage and expand its advantages through enhanced support.
Objective: To assess the level of appropriate complementary feeding practice and associated factors among care-givers of children 6-23 months in rural Damot sore Woreda, Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia.
Methods: Community based cross sectional study design was used. Data on infant feeding practices were collected from 546 mothers/care-givers of 6-23 months children of age by trained interviewers using a pretested and structured standardized questionnaire. Data were entered using Epi-data software version 3.5.1 and analyzed by using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version-20. Logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with appropriate complementary feeding practice and level of statistical significance was made at the p-value of 0.05.
Results: The level of appropriate complementary feeding practice was 11.4%, 95% CI: (8.8%, 14.3%). Seventy four percent (95% CI 70.3%, 78%) of infants were introduced complementary feeding at six months. Minimum feeding frequency was 94.5%, 95% CI: (92.5%, 96.3%). Minimum dietary diversity was 16.5 %, 95% CI: (13.4%, 19.6%) and Minimum acceptable diet was 16.3%, 95% CI: (13.0%, 19.4%) over 24 hour prior to the survey. Antenatal care follow-up four times and more (AOR= 3.235, 95% CI: (1.096, 9.546) and birth order of 3rd or 4th (AOR=2.403, 95% CI: (1.141, 5.059) were found to have a significant association with Appropriate complementary feeding practice.
Conclusion: The study showed the level of appropriate complementary feeding practice in the study area was low. Mother/Caregivers who had birth order 3rd or 4th and attending antenatal care visit > 4 times were significantly associated with appropriate complementary feeding practice. The study urges to implement policies and strategies to improve appropriate complementary feeding Practice.
Abraham Tadesse 2015. Household food insecurity and associated factors among households in Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia
Abstract

Background: Food insecurity is a major public health problem in both developing and developed nations. Based on Food and Agricultural organization 11.3% of the global population (805 million) was unable to meet their dietary energy requirements in 2012–14. In developing countries 791 million people live in hunger that makes 13.5 % of the overall population, remain chronically underfed.

Objective: To assess the level of household food insecurity and associated factors among households in Sodo town, South Ethiopia.

Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Sodo town from August 6up to 31, 2015. A total of 609 households were selected from Sodo town by using multistage cluster sampling technique. The data were collected using pretested and structured questionnaires based on interview with household heads. The questionnaires included socio- demographic, socioeconomic and household food insecurity access scale questions. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 16 software and both Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses.

Results: From a total of 609 households included in this study, 37.6 %( 95%CI =33.5%-41.5%) were food insecure. Of these 10.8% (95%CI=8.4%-13.3%) households were mildly food insecure, while 23.2% (95%CI=19.9%-26.6%) and 3.6% (95%CI=2.3%-5.1%) households were moderately and severely food insecure respectively. Factors associated with food insecurity were single household head (AOR=4.06, 95%CI=1.24-13.27), more than two dependent members in the family (AOR=3.03, 95%CI=1.38- 6.63), daily laborers of household head (AOR=16.0 95%CI =4.57-56.03) higher monthly income (AOR= 0.013, 95 %CI =0.004- 0.05) and low monthly food expenditure (AOR=10.56, 95% CI = 2.61-42.71).

Conclusion: The study shows that the prevalence of food insecurity was high in the study area as compared to urban national level. Being single household head, more than two dependent members in the household, daily laborers of household head, higher monthly income and low monthly food expenditure were significantly associated with household food insecurity. Therefore, the result needs attention on stabilization of food markets, designing urban food insecurity strategies and creating job opportunity to improving food security conditions in the studied area.
Dedefo Bati Bedassa 2015. Assessment of prevalence of acute malnutrition based on body weight loss and associated factors among adult HIV/AIDS clients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Shashemane referral Hospital
Abstract

Background: HIV/AIDS and malnutrition are both highly prevalent in many parts of the world, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Their effects are interrelated and act in a vicious cycle. Both HIV and malnutrition can independently cause progressive damage to the immune system of human being and increased susceptibility to infection, morbidity and mortality through opportunistic infections. Ethiopia is one of the countries hit hardest by both HIV epidemic in Africa and exhibits one of the world highest incidences of under nutrition. Thus, HIV/AIDS and malnutrition act in synergy to undermine the immunity of many Ethiopians and has taken lives of millions.

Objective: -To assess the prevalence of acute malnutrition based on body weight loss and associated factors among adult HIV/AIDS clients on ART in Shashemane referral Hospital.

Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study design involving quantitative method was employed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with acute malnutrition among 2008 HIV-Infected adults (≥18 years) on ART attending clinic in Shashemane referral Hospital. Systematic random sampling technique was used to recruit study participants. Data was collected by face to face interview using pre-tested structured questionnaire, weight and height measurements were also taken. The data was analyzed using SPSS statistical package. Multivariate logistic regressions analysis was carried out to determine factors associated with acute malnutrition.

Results: -The study revealed that 64 (15.9%) of the study participants lost more than 5% of their body weight (acute malnutrition) over three months period, Low CD4 levels (AOR=8.4,95% CI:3.5-20.4), inability to access and consume high protein diets like meat, egg & fish per week (AOR=3.0, 95% CI;1.4-6.4), low meal frequency per day (3 or less)(AOR=2.8,95% CI: 1.3-7.7) and low average income per month (< 1000 ETB) (AOR=9.1,95% CI: 3.7-22.1) were significantly (P< 0.05) associated with body weight loss of 5% or more in three months.

Conclusion and Recommendation: Malnutrition is still a great problem among HIV/AIDS clients on ART. All responsible body including HIV/AIDS program managers and clinicians should give attention to nutrition assessment, counseling and provision of nutritional support.
Dereje Dessalegn 2015.  Nutritional status and associated factors among children aged 6-59 months in Areka town, Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia

Abstract

Background: Malnutrition remains one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality among children in low-income countries. Over two-thirds of these deaths, which are often associated with inappropriate feeding practices, occur during the first five years of life. Malnutrition is also, underlying cause of 57% of child deaths and persist as major public health problems in Ethiopia. Nonetheless, little is known about the magnitude and factors associated with malnutrition among children aged 6 to 59 months across all corners of Ethiopia.

Objective: To assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among children aged 6 to 59 months in Areka town,Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia.

Methods: A community based cross-sectional survey design was used among randomly selected 379 children and their mothers / care givers (mothers-child pair). Socio- demographic data were collected using an interviewer administered pretested structured questionnaire. Moreover, anthropometric data were collected using digital weight scale, length and height boards. Data were entered in EPI-info Version 3.5.2 and then exported to SPSS version 21.0. The World Health Organization (WHO) anthros software was used to analyze anthropometric data to determine Z-score. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Odds ratio along with 95% CI was estimated to identify factors associated with child malnutrition using multivariable logistic regression. The level of statistical significance was declared at p –value less – than 0.05.

Results: The prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight was 33.2 % (95% CI = 0.3 – 0.4), 7.9% (95% CI = 0.07 – 0.09) and 13.5% (95% CI = 0.13 – 0.14) respectively. In multivariable logistic regression analysis having no formal education [(AOR=5.7, 95%CI= (1.9-16.7)] was associated with stunting. Having large family size (7+) was associated with wasting [(AOR=4.9, 95%CI= (1.5-15)] and underweight [(AOR=7.9, 95%CI=2.7-17.6)]. Dietary diversity score of 4-6 [(AOR=2.6, 95% CI= (1.09-6.3)] was associated with wasting compared with the score of 7+. Mother’s occupation (being unemployed) [(AOR=4.5, 95%CI= (1.8-11.2)], child’s age (6-36 months) [(AOR=2.2, 95%CI= (1.08-4.8)] were also found to be factors associated with underweight.

Conclusion: The prevalence of child under nutrition in this study was found to be moderate in the study area. Educational status of mothers, family size, dietary diversity score, and occupation of mother and age of the child remain key risk factors at least with two form of malnutrition. Therefore; immediate interventions targeted to community management of acute malnutrition might be appropriate to manage wasting and underweight which is an indication of acute malnutrition in the study area.

Dereje Yohannes 2015. Malnutrition and associated factors among school adolescents
in Wolaita Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia

Abstract
Background: Adolescent is a period of rapid growth and maturation, and the extra nutrients are needed to support their growth spurt.
Objective: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among school adolescents in Wolaita sodo town, Southern Ethiopia.
Methods: Institution based cross sectional study was conducted from May 18- June 10, 2015. A multistage sampling was used to select a random sample of 655 adolescents from selected schools. Data on socio-demographic information collected by using interviewer administered questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements were made by using digital Seca scale and height measuring board by trained data collectors. Data were entered in to Epidata version 3.1 software and exported to SPSS version 20. World Health Organizations (WHO) Anthroplus software was used to analyze anthropometric data. Bivariaet and multivariable analysis were done to identify factors associated with the malnutrition of adolescents. Odds ratio along with 95% CI was estimated to measure the strength of association. The level of statistical significance was declared at p <0.05.
Result: The overall prevalence of thinness, stunting, overweight/obesity among school adolescents was 4.7% (95% CI; 3%, 6.4%), 5.2% (95% CI; 3.4%, 7%) and 5.0% (95%CI 3.4%, 6.7%) respectively. Being male [AOR=5.173 95%CI 2.005-13.347], learning at private school [AOR=3.563 95%CI 1.327- 9.565], mothers with no formal education [AOR= 4.287 95%CI 1.122-16.374], owning no cattle [AOR= 4.163 95%CI 1.026-16.91], living in rental house [AOR=3.959 95%CI 1.235-12.688] and illness in 2 weeks prior to survey [AOR= 2.95 95% CI 1.125- 7.735] were significantly associated with thinness. Maternal education of secondary school [AOR= 0.214 95 % CI 0.054-0.846] was significantly associated with the stunting. Conclusion: The study showed that there is double burden of malnutrition where under nutrition and over nutrition were found to be co-existed among school adolescents in the study area. Being male, learning at private school, born to mother with no formal education, owning no cattle, leaving in rental house were significantly associated with under nutrition among school adolescents. There needs to implement evidence based school nutrition education and health programs to improve nutritional status of adolescents.

Elias Ejamo 2015. Complementary feeding practice and associated factors among mothers having children 6-23 months of age in rural community of Soro woreda Hadiya Zone, South Ethiopia

Abstract

Background: Globally, malnutrition has been responsible, directly or indirectly, for 60.0% of the 10.9 million deaths annually among children under five. Over one third of these deaths are caused by malnutrition related to inadequate complementary feeding.

Objective: To assess proportion and associated factors of timely initiation of complementary feeding practice among mothers having children 6-23 months of age in rural community of Soro woreda, South Ethiopia.

Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 543 mothers having children 6-23 months of age. A systematic random sampling technique was employed to select the study participants. Fourteen kebeles were selected by using simple random sampling out of 46 rural kebeles. Sample size was proportionally allocated to population size of each kebele. Pretest was done among 5% respondents in the kebeles which were not included in the study. Data were collected by using interviewer administered structured questionnaires. The collected data were coded, entered and cleaned by EPI info version 3.5.4 and data analysis was carried out by exporting coded data from EPI info into SPSS version 16. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Odds ratios along with 95% confidence interval were computed to measure the strength of association. Level of statistical significance was declared at p value less than 0.05. Frequencies distribution and numerical summary measures were used to present the data.

Results: Proportion of timely initiation of complementary feeding among children 6-8 months of age was 34.3%; 95% CI 🙁 30.31, 38.29).Maternal education mothers who had secondary and above [AOR=2.25; 95% CI: (1.17, 4.30)], postnatal care follow up [AOR=1.94; 95% CI: (1.19, 3.16)] and husband’s education mothers whose husband’s can read and write [AOR=2.33; 95% CI (1.06, 5.14) were found to be independent predictors of timely initiation of complementary feeding.

Conclusion: Only a little over one-third of mothers were initiated complementary feeding at the age between 6-8 months that is much lower than WHO recommendation for timely initiation of complementary feeding. Mothers who had no education and completed only primary school need more attention. All mothers must be encouraged to make postnatal care follow up.

Leila Hessen 2015. Under nutrition and its effect on wound healing and length of hospital stay among surgical patients admitted to hospitals in Wolaita Zone, Southern, Ethiopia

Abstract

Background: Malnutrition is a state of nutrition in which a deficiency, excess or imbalance of energy, protein, and other nutrients causes measurable adverse effects on tissue and body form (body shape, size, and composition), body function and clinical outcome.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of malnutrition and its association with wound healing and length of hospitalization among adult surgical patients admitted to hospitals in Wolaita Zone from august 5/2015 to October 5 /2015.

Methods: An institutional based cohort study design was used. Adult surgical patients admitted

to hospitals in Wolaita zone from July1/ 2015 to July 30/2015 were included. Pretested structured questionnaire was used. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight,) the biochemical analysis (serum albumin (Alb) and total lymphocyte count (TLC)) were taken for nutritional assessment during preoperative period. Wound healing was assessed by wound healing check list at 3rd post-operative day and at discharge. Length of stay was computed from the day of surgery to surgery to discharge Training was given for data collectors and supervisors. Data was analysed using SPSS version 16.0 program and presented in the form tables,graphes and narratives. Cox regression was used to see the effect of under nutrition on wound healing and stay in hospital.

Result: A total of 269 respondents were studied, over all nutritional status shows 31%, 65% and 29.3% were under nourished based on BMI, serum albumin and TLC respectively. The cumulative incidence of poor wound healing was 3 patients/day/1000 patients Over all. Higher among under nourished respondents.

Conclusion and recommendations: Wound healing was strongly associated with nutritional status. Therefore, improving nutritional status of patients at admissions is strongly recommended.

 

Lula Amza 2015. Under nutrition and associated factors among adult on highly active anti-retroviral therapy in Wolaita Sodo Teaching and Referral Hospital, Southern, Nation’s Nationalities People’s Region, Ethiopia
Abstract

Background: Malnutrition is emerging as an important barrier to adherence to care and treatment recommendations for people on HARRT.HIV specifically affects nutritional status by increasing energy requirements, reducing food intake, and adversely affecting nutrient absorption and metabolism.

Objective: To assess the magnitude of under nutrition and associated factors among adult client on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Wolaita Sodo teaching and referral Hospital, SNNPR, Ethiopia.

Methods: Institutional based cross sectional study design was used among randomly selected 519 adult patients on HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) at Wolaita Sodo University referral Hospital. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire and weight and height measurements were taken to determine the levels of nutritional status. Data were entered on to Epi Info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 16.0 for cleaning and further analysis. Both Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the factors associated with nutritional status of people on HAART. Odds ratios along with 95%CI was estimated to measure the strength of association and p value less than 0.05 was used as a cut- off point to declare level of statistical significance.

Results: The magnitude of underweight (BMI<18.5kg/m2) was 26.6%95%CI:(22.8%-30.4%).Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that, not having food aid[AOR=2.76, 95%CI:(1.77-4.30)] , low baseline CD4 count[AOR=2.12, 95%CI:(1.31-3.42,)] being male[AOR=1.80, 95%CI:(( 1.10-2.93)]and lack of formal education [AOR=2.48, 95%CI:(1.48-4.17] were significantly associated with under nutrition.

Conclusion: The burden of underweight was high among adult on HAART lack of food aid and lack of formal education, decrease in CD4 count and male gender have influenced nutritional status of the study participants. Nutritional assessment, management and nutritional support and timely initiation of ART should be the key intervention during the course of chronic HIV care. Follow up and ART service provision monitoring are also important to improve the nutritional status of HIV/AIDS patient.
Mulugeta Yohannis Kabalo 2015. Treatment outcomes of Outpatient Therapeutic Program for management of severe acute malnutrition in children treated within Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia
Abstract

Background: Roughly 13 (2%) million children in developing countries suffer from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The existing protocol brought SAM management from facility based approach to community based, by Outpatient Therapeutic Program (OTP). But, little was known about the treatment outcomes of the program. Thus, this study was aimed to assess treatment outcomes of SAM and associated factors among children treated within OTP in Wolaita zone.

Methods: A retrospective facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in OTP records of 794 children, treated at 24 health posts retrieved from Jan. to Dec. 2014. Individual cards were selected by systematic random sampling. Sample was assigned by Population Proportion to Size (PPS) for each selected woreda and OTP sites within woreda. Data were entered, thoroughly cleaned, and analyzed in SPSS version 20.

Results: The recovery rate was revealed as 64.9% at 95% CI (61, 68). Death rate, default rate, weight gain and length of stay were 1.2%, 2.2%, 4.2 g/kg/day and 6.8 weeks respectively. Children living in <25 minutes were with 1.53 times higher odds of recovery than children reside in >25 minutes (AOR=1.53 at 95 %CI (1.11, 2.12)). The likelihood of recovery was 2.6 times higher for children with kwashiorkor than with marasmus (AOR=2.62 at 95% CI (1.77, 3.89)). Likewise, children provided amoxicillin were 1.52 times more likely to recover compared to with their counterparts (AOR=1.52 at 95% CI (1.09, 2.11)).

Conclusion: The recovery rate and weight gain were lower than sphere standard. Distance from OTP, provision of amoxicillin and type of malnutrition were factors identified as significantly associated with treatment outcome of SAM. Building capacity of OTP service providers and regular monitoring of service provision based on the management protocol were recommended.
Tegegn Tadesse 2015. Prevalence and associated factors of non-exclusive breast feeding of infants during the first six months in rural community of Sorro Woreda, Hadiya Zone, South Ethiopia
Abstract

Background: WHO and UNICEF recommend exclusive breast feeding for infants with in the first six months to achieve optimal growth, development and health. Despite the advantages of exclusive breast feeding, a wide number of mothers practice non-exclusive breast feeding in Ethiopia. Therefore the study aimed at identifying prevalence and factors associated with non-exclusive breast feeding in rural community of Sorro Worada, South Ethiopia.

Methods: A community based cross sectional study was employed to assess prevalence and factors associated with non-exclusive breast feeding in rural Sorro Woreda, South Ethiopia. Study population was all mothers with infants within age of 0-5 months living in the randomly selected kebeles of the rural community of Sorro Worada. The study was conducted on 588 mothers with infants selected by using systematic sampling method. Study was conducted from Aug 12 up to 23, 2015. Both bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to assess the association between the study variables and to control the possible confounding.

Results: the prevalence of non-exclusive breast feeding in infants under six months was 49.4%. Being currently unmarried [AOR (95%CI) =3.73(1.52, 9.15)], index infant‟s age being within 2-3 months [AOR (95%CI) =3.38(2.00,5.71)] and 4-5 months [AOR (95%CI) =9.60(5.48, 16.81)], initiation of breast feeding one hour after delivery [AOR(95%CI)= 2.17(1.41,3.33)], no ANC visit during their last pregnancy [AOR (95%CI) =2.48(1.62, 3.80)] and no PNC visit after delivery [AOR (95%CI)=1.64(1.06,2.56)] were factors significantly associated with non-exclusive breast feeding among mothers with infants of age 0-5 months.

Conclusion: large proportion of mothers with infants under 6 months were non exclusively breast fed according to WHO and National infant and young child feeding recommendations. Maintaining Community based behavioral change communication (BCC) by using multiple communication channels is recommended to reduce the level of NEBF at the study area.
Yohannes Azezo 2015. Iron-folic acid supplementation, consumption, proper dose Intake & associated factors among pregnant women in Loma Woreda, Dawuro zone, south Ethiopia

Abstract

Background: About 56 million of pregnant women worldwide are anemic. From these 56% in developing & 18% in developed countries are anemic. Its prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa & Ethiopia was 50% & 22% respectively. Globally, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) annually contributes to over 100,000 maternal deaths. The aim of the study: To determine the level of iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation, consumption, proper dose intake and associated factors among pregnant women in the last two years in Loma Woreda, South Ethiopia, 2015.

Methods: Community based cross sectional study was conducted in Loma Woreda, from 1-30, Aug 2015. Multi stage cluster sampling method was used to select primary and secondary sampling unit. Five trained data collectors interviewed a total of 536 mothers by using pretested and structured questionnaires. The cleaned data entered in to Epi-data version 3.1 & further analyzed by using SPSS version 16 and p-value <0.05 were considered as significant.

Results: A total of 536 mothers participated in this study with response rate 98.7%. The level of iron-folic acid supplementation, consumption and proper dose intake was 84.9%, 30.8% and 39.3% respectively. Among predictable variables to IFA supplementation only age category < 25yrs and ever attend ANC follow up were associated with AOR, (95%CI) 2.99(1.16-7.69 and 18.26(7.31-45.59) respectively. Concerning consumption IFA only ever tested for HIV associated with AOR (95%CI) 3.13(1.23-7.97). Regarding proper dose intake 90+ employed husband occupation were significantly associated with AOR (95% CI) 2.01(1.08-14.83). Conclusion: The level of IFA supplementation among pregnant women in the study area was high, but consumption and proper dose intake was very low. Factors like < 25 years and ANC follow up associated with IFA supplementation, screening for HIV associated with IFA consumption and husband employment associated with proper dose intake. The results urges for strengthened actions aimed at improving IFA consumption and proper dose intake in the study area.

2016

Amare Abebe Wolkantao 2016. Father’s involvement on child complementary feeding practice and associated factors in Damot Woyde Woreda, southern Ethiopia

Abstract
Background: Infant and young child feeding is critical for child health and survival. Infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life and thereafter receive adequate complementary foods in addition to continued breastfeeding until 2 years of age or beyond. Parents are the primary agents enabling children to grow into healthy, responsible, and mature adults. However, little attention has been paid on the influence of fathers on child feeding practices, although fathers are very important in raising well-adjusted, happy and successful children. The current fathers perceived involvement status is not well known.

Objective: To explore fathers perception and involvement on child complementary feeding practice in rural Damot Woyide Woreda.

Methods: mixed qualitative and quantitative study was conducted in five rural and one urban randomly selected kebeles. A total of 634 fathers with child age of 6-23 months were chosen by systematic sampling. Participants for focus group discussion and in-depth interviews were selected purposively. Data entry was carried out using Epi-data software version 1.4.4.0 and analyzed by SPSS. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to assess the relative effect of independent variables on the outcome variable. All interviews were transcribed, coded, categorized, summarized and analyzed using open-code software version 4.02.

Results: The level of perceived father’s involvement on child complementary feeding was 50.9% with 95%CI (44.9, 53). In multivariable analysis fathers of secondary education AOR95%CI 0.516(0.295, 0.903), fathers with income of 501-750ETB AOR95%CI 2.479(1.284, 4.788) and fathers with good perception of child feeding AOR95%CI 1.754(1.247, 2.466%) were significantly associated with fathers involvement on their child feeding. On timely introduction of child complementary feeding, the majority of fathers have better awareness on the recommended complementary feeding practice.

Conclusion: The study revealed that one in two fathers had good involvement in complementary feeding of their child. Income generating activities education and behavioral change communication for fathers should be encouraged to improve their involvement on child feeding and care.

Azalech Ayza 2016. Prevalence of overweight/ obesity and associated factors among adults in Wolaita Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia

Abstract
Background: Overweight and obesity has become a major global health challenge that affects virtually all ages and it is related to the occurrence of various chronic non-communicable diseases. Routine row meat eating and lesser habit of walking were the triggering malpractices in the study area that results in week physical activities end up on overweight/obesity.

Objective: to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity and associated factors among adults of Sodo town.

Methods: Community based cross sectional study was conducted from January 15/2016 to February 15/2016 in Sodo Town. A total of 370 households were selected from 14,551 using a simple random sampling technique, then, lottery method was used to select an individual>25 years of age from the selected households. Data were collected using pretested and structured questionnaires that included socio- demographic, economic characteristics, dietary habit and physical activity. Anthropometric measurements (height and weight) was assessed using the WHO recommended techniques. Overweight/obesity was defined and categorized using body mass index. Data were analyzed using SPSS windows version 20 Software. Both bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done.

Results: Prevalence of overweight was 32.4% and obesity 16.2%.The combined prevalence of overweight/obesity was 48.6%. Factors associated with overweight/obesity were being female [AOR= 3.98 95% of CI (1.69-9.39)], age >55 years [AOR =5.01 95% CI (1.94-12.92)], having chronic illness [AOR= 2.85 95% CI (1.13-7.2)], using Bajaj/care for transportation [AOR= 1.93 95% of CI (1.14-3.29)], spent 3-5 hours in sitting or reclining [AOR= 3.67 95% CI (1.58-8.51)], taking one bottle of soft drink per day [AOR= 2(95% CI 1.11-3.69)],those who consumed vegetable ≥3 times per day [AOR= 5.7(1.64-19.74)] associated with overweight/obesity.

Conclusion: Prevalence of overweight/obesity among adult population in Sodo Town is high and of important public health concern. The unhealthy lifestyle that is characterized by sedentary life, less or no physical activity and easy access of transportation might contribute to this problem.

Derebe G/Yesus 2016. Appropriate complementary feeding practices and associated factors among mothers of 6-23 months old children at Kedida Gamela Woreda, Southern Ethiopia

Abstract
Background:  Malnutrition and growth faltering affects majority of under-five children in developing countries and it frequently happened during infancy. Poor complementary feeding practice is one of the major contributors of malnutrition. Studies have shown that appropriate complementary feeding practices reduces the incidence of stunting and leads to better health and growth outcome.

Objective: The main objective of this study is to assess the magnitude of appropriate complementary feeding practices and associated factors among mothers of children 6-23 months of age in Kedida Gamela woreda, Kambata Tambaro Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted using simple random sampling technique among 733 mothers who had children with 6-23 months of age in Southern Ethiopia. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed by using SPSS for windows version 20. Frequency distribution, binary and multivariable logistic regressions were done. OR with 95% confidence interval was computed to measure the association between outcome and explanatory variables.

Results:  The response rate was 100%. In this study only 21% (95% CI= 18.5, 24.3) children aged 6-23 months received appropriate complementary feeding. Maternal age 18-24 years [AOR=4.01(95%CI 1.78, 9.04)], post natal care follow up [AOR=2.14 (95%CI 1.61, 4.44)], children within age group 6-11 months [AOR=2.88(95%CI 1.68, 4.94)] and being household food secure [AOR=2.23(95%CI 1.30, 3.82)] were the factors associated with appropriate complementary feeding practice.

Conclusion: One out of five mothers fed complementary foods appropriately to their children aged 6-23 months which was very low. All mothers must be encouraged to make postnatal care follow up. Income generating activity should be made to assure household food security status to prevent economical vulnerability of households.

Etaferahu Elias 2016. Perception, practice and availability of adequately iodized salt in Wolaita Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia: Mixed Method Approach

Abstract
Background: Despite salt iodization achievement in most countries, significant section of the world’s population still does not use adequately iodized salt. In Ethiopia the proportion of households (HHs) using adequately iodized salt is very low and the determinants for inadequate use were not explored. Therefore, this study explores the perceptions, assess practices and determine availability of adequately iodized salt in Wolaita Sodo town.

Methods: A total, 337 women were interviewed while 4 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were conducted. Community based cross-sectional design supplemented with qualitative approach were employed. Simple random sampling technique was used for quantitative and purposive sampling for qualitative sample selection. The data were cleaned and entered into Epi-Info version 3.5.4 and exported to Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20. Both bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were conceded whiles qualitative content analysis used for qualitative data. Rapid salt testing was conducted in all selected HHs to determine iodine levels.

Results: The proportion of HHs using adequately iodized salt were 119(35.3%) with 337(100%) iodized salt coverage. About 293(86.9%) women had good knowledge of iodized salt and IDDs but more than 203(60%) had poor practice. Based on the finding of this study, highest income of the respondent determines availability of adequately iodized salt in the household (AOR =2.33 at 95% CI (1.02-5.30)) for comparatively with highest income groups to their absolute counter parts. Moreover, most focus group discussants were unaware of the importance of iodine/iodized salt, factors causing loss of iodine and iodization status of unpacked salt. In addition, women perceive packed iodized salt as medication to treat goiter and most said they are not in need for iodized salt because they don’t have goiter.

Conclusion: The availability of adequately iodized salt at HHs and knowledge status of the importance of iodine/iodized salt and factors causing iodine loss were very low in the study area. Hence, women should be sensitized about importance of iodine/iodized salt and its proper handling at household level. Special interventions should be focused on creating awareness towards reasons of early/middle salt adding.

Efrata Girma 2016. Abnormal lipid profile and associated factors among human immunodeficiency virus infected adults on highly active-anti retroviral treatment at Wolaita Sodo University Teaching Referral Hospital

Abstract
Background: Serum lipid abnormality has emerged as an important health problem affecting human immunodeficiency virus positive individuals causing metabolic complications which may lead to an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Highly active antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection itself and different factors including nutritional and lifestyle could lead to lipid profile changes in people with the virus. In developing countries like Ethiopia, there is a lack of awareness and limited monitoring to access the lipid profile of the antiretroviral treated individuals.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess abnormal lipid profile and associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS receiving highly active antiretroviral treatment at the time of the survey.

Methods:-Institution based Cross-sectional study was conducted from 01/05/2008 to 30/05/2008 among 352 HIV positive adults on treatment at Wolaita Sodo University Teaching Referral Hospital. Data were collected by interviewer administered structured questionnaires, chart review, and anthropometric measurements. Venous blood was collected for determination of lipid profile by using clinical chemistry analyzer. Data were entered and cleaned in to Epi-info version 3.5 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used. Variables with P-value less than or equal to 0.25 on bivariate analysis were entered into multivariable logistic regression. Significance was declared at P<0.05 in multivariable logistic regressions and considered to be an independent factor.

Results: The overall prevalence of abnormal lipid profile was 86.7%, of which decrement of high density lipoprotein accounts 72.8%, triglyceride 43.8%, total cholesterol 26.7% and low-density lipoprotein 25.2%. Age gather than 40 years old (AOR=2.01:95%CI,1.06-3.79) ,being female (AOR=2.82:95%CI,1.49-5.32),Urbandwellers(AOR=2.72:95%CI,1.10-6.73),Treatment duration gather than 2 years (AOR=2.41:95%CI,1.02-5.67),BMI >25 (AOR=3.15:95%CI,1.48-6.73),usual root and tuber (AOR=2.49:95%CI,1.23-5.03) and milk (AOR=2.38:95%CI,1.15-4.90) independent factor for abnormal total cholesterol. Abnormal triglyceride level has become significantly associated with Urban dwellers (AOR=2.03:95%CI, 1.04-3.96) and usual milk intake (AOR=3.02:95%CI, 1.57-5.77).Being male (AOR=1.85:95%CI, 1.06-3.24) determinant of decrease high density lipoprotein. Abnormal low density lipoprotein was significantly associated with being female (AOR=2.49:95%CI, 1.34-4.62), Treatment duration gather than 2 years (AOR=2.49:95%CI, 1.02-6.12), body mass index >25 (AOR=3.57:95%CI, 1.54-8.31), usual root and tuber (AOR=2.12:95%CI, 1.06-4.22) and milk (AOR=2.53:95%CI, 1.19-5.37).

Conclusion: The magnitude of abnormal lipid profile was significantly high among people living with HIV/AIDS on HAART and thus intervention programs are needed. Therefore, lipid profiles should be screened periodically to monitor any changes and to reduce future cardiovascular complications.

Deneke Tosheno 2016. Prevalence of underweight and associated factors among children aged 6-59 months in Wolaita Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia

ABSTRACT
Background: Under-nutrition among children is a critical problem because its effects are severe, long lasting and go beyond childhood. Assessing its magnitude and factors attributing to it is central in reducing and preventing its consequences. However, study based information is lacking and it has not been conducted in the study area yet.

Objective: To assess the prevalence of underweight and associated factors among children aged 6-59 months in Wolaita Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia

Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted from January 15 to February 15, 2016 in Wolaita Sodo town. A Multi-stage sampling was used to select study participants. Information on socio-economic, demographic and dietary diversity was collected by structured interviews. Child weight was measured using standardized weighing scale. Data were entered using EpiInfo software version 3.5.4, WHO Anthro and were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the associations between different variables. Statistical significance was considered at significance level of 5%.

Result: Nearly 25% (95%CI=21.2%, 28%) of children in the study setting were underweight. Factors including child sex [AOR=1.8, 95%CI=(1.07-3.04)], child illness/diarrhea [AOR=11.1, 95%CI=(5.93-20.65)], maternal education [AOR=0.23,95%CI=(0.08-0.68)] and maternal occupation [AOR=5.27 95%CI=(1.57-17.67)] and level of maternal decision making [AOR=14.43, 95%CI=(8.03-25.9)] and household monthly income [AOR=3.91, 95%CI (1.20-12.70)] were independently significantly associated with under-nutrition (underweight).

Conclusion: The prevalence of under-nutrition (underweight) among the under five children in the study area was found to be high and of important public health concern. The present study suggests factors influencing child nutritional status in the study area that include child level factors (Being male and presence of diarrheal morbidity), maternal level factors (no  formal education, low level of decision making and being house wife and merchant) and low household monthly income might contribute to this problem. This suggests the need to implement community based health and nutrition programs.

Dagim Abera Araya 2016. Prevalence and associated factors of metabolic syndrome among government employee adults in Wolaita Sodo Town, South Ethiopia

ABSTRACT
Background; Metabolic syndrome/METS/ is a cluster of metabolic disorder that come together as one; central obesity, hypertension, elevated blood glucose, hypertriglycidaemia  and low level of high density lipoprotein /HDL/. In Ethiopia, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and components are increasing with a higher adult morbidity and mortality rate. As there are no intervention activities present this condition has become a major public health problem.

Objective: To assess prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated factors among government employee adults in wolaita sodo town, south Ethiopia.

Methodology: An institution based cross sectional study was conducted among 347 randomly selected government employee adults in wolaita sodo town, southern Ethiopia. Data were collected by trained team of nurses and lab technicians’ based on WHO stepwise approach. The prevalence was assessed by using National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Penal III/ NCEP ATP / and International Diabetes Federation /IDF/ criteria’s. Data were collected stepwise and interred and coded using Epinfo 3.5.1 and analyzed by using SPSS v.20, both bivariate and multivariable logistic regression to assess the association and to control the possible confounding factors. The results were reported by using Adjusted Odds Ratio /AOR/ and 95% CI P-value less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant.

Results: The prevalence of METS was 34.2% using NCEP ATP definition and it was 49.2% by using IDF. HDL concentration, Triglyceride concentration and Blood Pressure were highly frequent among the components of METS. During multivariate analysis being male (AOR=2.31 95%CI;1.19-4.5), increase in aging (AOR=3.5295%CI;1.10-11.18), current alcohol drinking (AOR=3.49 95%CI;1.5-8.04), unknown amount of chat chewed (AOR=0.1 95%CI; 0.02-0.4), OK type of oil used (AOR=0.162 95%CI;0.03-0.83) and sleep duration less than five hour (AOR=0.155 95% CI; 0.026-0.906) were significant predictors of METS.

Conclusions: The wolaita sodo town government employee adults experience higher prevalence by comparing form other studies done in Ethiopia. One of the key steps for prevention and control of METS is that there should be worksite screening for risk factors at every level and to facilitate early detection of subjects and get to effective management of the modifiable factors/, using liquid vegetable oil for food preparation, avoiding or limiting alcohol dinking and chat chewing, having optimum regular sleep time and having regular physical exercise are expected to decrease the consequence of METS.

Samson Kastro Dake 2016. Maternal factors associated with full-term low birth weight in government health facilities of Sodo town, South Ethiopia

Abstract

Background: Globally, 16% of all babies are born low birth weight. Low birth weight is a known factor associated with neonatal morbidity and mortality. Many maternal factors affect fetal growth and thus birth weight. The magnitude of birth outcomes and maternal factors associated with it been less documented in the study area and no documented study included dietary factors contributing to low birth weight.

Objective: To determine the prevalence and identify maternal factors associated with full term low birth weight in government health facilities of Sodo town, South Ethiopia.

Methods: A facility based cross sectional study design was applied from March 7 to April 29/2016. A total of 432 mothers selected consecutively were interviewed before discharge using structured and pretested questionnaire by trained data collectors from other health institutions. The weight of the newborns was measured within an hour and for 121 neonates in was taken from records of the health facilities. There always is a record of newborn outcomes in the existing government system. The data was entered into, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS version 20. The association between the exposure variables and the outcome variable was evaluated through bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses.

Results: The magnitude of low birth weight was found to be 8.1%, and the mean and standard deviation of birth weights were 3532±565 in grams. Attending primary education and below (AOR=6.23; 95% CI=1.68, 23.1), being a house wife (AOR=5.85; 95% CI= 1.40, 24.3), urban place of residence (AOR=0.08; 95% CI= 0.01, 0.87) and consumption of fruits less than once per day (AOR 11.3; 95% CI=1.98, 64.9) were maternal factors associated with low birth weight.

Conclusions: Attending primary education and below, being a house wife, urban place of residence and consumption of fruits less than once per day were maternal factors associated with low birth weight. Health facilities should provide education on consumption of fruits during pregnancy and policy makers should place more emphasis on education as it imparts knowledge and thus influences people’s perceptions and dispositions.

Amare Worku 2016. Adherence to recommended food intake in adult type two diabetic mellitus patients in Wolaita Zone

Abstract
Background: Diabetes is a condition in which the level of hyperglycemia giving rises to risk of micro vascular damage and associated with reduced life expectancy, significant morbidity due to specific diabetes related complications, increased risk of macro vascular complications. Appropriate dietary habit and adhering with recommended food intake prevent diabetic complications and death. To increase appropriate dietary habit and adherence to recommended food intake government and nongovernmental organizations carried different modalities to improve the health of diabetic patients in both developing and developed countries. However, there is little information and data concerning dietary habit and adherence to recommended food intake among diabetic patients.

Objective: Adherence to recommended food intake among type two Diabetic mellitus patients

Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2015 to May, 2015 on type two diabetic mellitus patients of Woliata zone. The final sample size was 481. Data analyses were done using EPI INFO and SPSS software.

Results: 81 (16.8%) respondents were adhered to diabetic diet. There was a significant association between age of 31 and above[P=0.011, AOR (95%CI) =2.909(1.132-5.265)], marital status of married[P=0.002, AOR (95% CI) = 2.528(1.395-4.581 )], urban residence[p=.028,AOR(95%CI)=2.368 (1.092-4.817)], duration of diabetic mellitus 151-250 months [P=0.004,AOR(95%CI)=2.281(1.298-4.008)], and good knowledge [P=0.048,AOR(95%)=1.648 (1.007-5.903) ]with adherence to recommended food intake in type two diabetic patients .

Conclusion: The dietary practices of diabetic patients were inappropriate and adherence to diabetic diet was suboptimal so attention should be given and require improvement. To achieve life style changes and self-care practices, patients and health providers should work together.

Tekeste Dalke 2016. Vitamin A supplementation coverage and associated factors among children 6-59 months in rural kebeles in Damot Sore Woreda, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Abstract

Background: Vitamin A supplementation is one of the most cost-effective interventions for reducing childhood mortality. When children don’t get enough Vitamin A, they become vulnerable to diseases like diarrhea and measles. Vitamin A deficiency affects about 190 million children, most of them from sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia. It is estimated that 42% of children below 5 years of age are at risk of vitamin A deficiency. Even though several studies were done on Vitamin A Supplementation, there is limited community based data on coverage and associated factors for children 6-59 months in Ethiopia and as to the knowledge of investigator there is no study in rural kebeles in Damot Sore Woreda in particular.

Objective: To assess VAS coverage and associated factors among children 6-59 months in rural kebeles of Damot Sore Woreda, Southern Ethiopia.

Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted in rural kebeles in Damot Sore Woreda, Southern Ethiopia.  Study population was caregivers/mothers with children 6-59 months selected for the study; two stage cluster sampling was used to select 634 participants. Data on socio demographic characteristics, maternal and paternal education, religion, distance of home from the health post, Vitamin A Supplementation for the index child in the last 6 months were collected using structure questionnare. Both bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to assess the association between the study variables and to control the possible confounding factors.

Results: Coverage of VAS in the last six months for children 6-59 months was 330(52.9%) at 95% CI of (49.0-56.7).Factors that significantly affect the coverage were; vaccination status AOR=3.28;95% CI:1.07,3.41, p=0.038, measles vaccination status AOR=3.64;95% CI:1.26,3.73, p=0.014, household income to 1000 ETB, AOR= 1.71;95% CI:1.53-2.09 ,p=0.006 and maternal educational status AOR=3.01;95% CI:2.48-4.39, p=0.001.

Conclusion: The coverage of vitamin A supplementation in Damot Sore Woreda was comparable with the national finding in the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey 2011. The routine supplementation programme should be strengthened to enhance the coverage of vitamin A supplementation in the area.

Yohannes samuel 2016. Prevalence of anaemia and associated factors among children 6-59 months old in Duggina Fanigo Woreda of Woliata Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Abstract
Background: Globally, a large number of children 6-59 months old are suffering from anaemia. In Ethiopia, like other developing countries more than 40% of children under-five years are suffering from anaemia. Anaemia during infancy and childhood period is associated with poor health and impaired cognitive development, leading to reduced academic achievement and earnings potential in their adulthood life. However, there is limited of information showing the magnitude of anaemia among young children in Ethiopia.

Objective: To assess prevalence of anaemia and associated factors among children 6-59 months old in Duggina Fanigo Woreda of Wolaita Zone, South Ethiopia in 2016.

Methods: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted from January – June 2016, on 406 children, aged 6–59 months, selected through systematic sampling method. Socio-demographic and other data on associated factors were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. Capillary blood was taken from the fingertip of each child and hemoglobin was measured using Haemo-Cue digital photometer. All the necessary safety measures were taken during blood collection. Data analysis was made using SPSS Version 16 for Windows. Both bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of independent variables with outcome variable and to control the possible confounding factors.

Results: A Total of 399 children were participated in this study. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 46.36%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age of child (AOR=2.14(95%CI: 1.32-3.49)) household food insecurity (AOR=2.98(95%CI: 1.76-5.03)), poor dietary diversity (AOR=2.74 (95%CI: 1.44–5.31)), and stunting (AOR=2.55(95% CI: 1.56-4.17)), were the only significant independent predictors of anaemia.

Conclusion: The overall prevalence of anaemia among children aged 6–59 months had major public health importance in the study area. Integrated efforts need to be prioritized to improve health as well as nutritional status of children 6-59 months old through appropriate infant and young child feeding practice.

Mengiste Orsngo, prevalence and factors associated with anaemia among lactating mothers in Damot sorie district, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia

Abstract:

Introduction: Anemia is defined as a reduction in the hemoglobin concentration of the peripheral blood below the normal range expected for age and sex of an individual and it is a serious public health problem especially; for children and mothers. However, the prevalence of anemia among lactating mothers is not well documented yet.
Objective:- To assess prevalence of anemia and associated factors among lactating mothers in Damot sorie district, Wolaita Zone, South Ethiopia.

Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted from April 10/2016 to may 20/2016 in Damot Sorie district, Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia. A total of 538 lactating mothers were participated and the response rate was 92.5%. The simple random sampling technique was used to select six kebeles from 17 rural kebeles. The sample size was allocated proportionally to the population size of randomly selected kebeles. The systematic sampling technique was used to select participants to obtained allocated sample size. Semi structured questionnaires were used.  Hemocue haemoglobin (Hemocue HB 301 analyzer) was used to analysis hemoglobin concentration and the mother was considered anaemic for Hgb less than 12g/dl according to World Health Organization Standards. Data were coded and entered into Epi info version 3.4.5 and exported to statistical package for social science software (SPSS) 20. Descriptive statistics, such as frequency and percentage were computed. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was run. Variables with P-value < 0.25 during the bivariate logestic analysis were run in multivariate analysis to determine the presence of statistically significant association between explanatory variables and the outcome variable. OR with 95% CI was used to measure association.

Results: The mean age of respondents was 28.13±5.3SD years. The mean haemoglobin con-centration was 12.03±1.65 gm/dl. Over all anemia prevalence was 44.4% in lactating mother with 2.8%   severe cases. Malaria infection history, AOR 4.31(2.02-8.95), lack of formal education, AOR 4.83(1.14-14.12), lack of  of ANC follow up AOR 1.99(1.29-3.09) and lack of  current family planning utilization AOR 1.86(1.19-2.92) times more likely to develop anemia compared to counterparts.

Conclusion: Anaemia was severe public health problem in the study area and its prevalence was significantly associated with malaria infection history, education and health service utilization of lactating mothers. To prevent anaemia in lactating mother multifaceted intervention programs should be addressed through multisectorial collaboration; health, education and agriculture.

Rahel Gamecha, Undernutrition and associated factors among children aged 6-59 months in Wonsho Woreda, Sidama Zone Southern Ethiopia

Abstract

Background: Child under nutrition is a major global health problem, contributing to morbidity, mortality, impaired intellectual development and suboptimal adult work capacity. Although the rate of under nutrition in Ethiopia as well as in Southern Nations Nationalities and People‘s Region (SNNPR) has substantially declined in the last decade, it still remains the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children under five years.

Objective: To assess the prevalence of undernutrition and associated factors among children aged 6-59 months in Wonsho Woreda, Sidama Zone SNNPR, 2016.

Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in Wonsho Woreda from April 1 to 27, 2016. A total of 595 randomly selected child-mother pairs were included in the study. Mothers were interviewed and height and weight of children were measured. World Health Organization‘s (WHO) Anthro software was used to convert anthropometric measurements into Z-scores. The data was entered in to Epidata version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done to identify factors associated with child undernutrition. A statistical significance was declared at p-value less than 0.05.

Results: The prevalence of stunting, underweight and wasting in the study area were 45.7% (95% CI=41.7%-49.7%), 20.5% (95% CI=17.3%-23.8%) and 14.1% (95% CI=11.3%-16.9%), respectively. Low economic status, poor child dietary diversity score (DDS) and use of drinking water from unprotected source were 1.68(AOR=1.68; 95% CI=1.06, 2.65), 1.45(AOR=1.45; 95% CI=1.02, 2.07) and 1.79(AOR=1.79; 95%CI=1.12, 2.85) times increased risk of stunting,respectively. Whereas as, poor household DDS, large family size and diarrheal disease were 3.75(AOR=3.75; 95%CI=2.13, 6.59), 3.35(AOR=3.35; 95% CI=2.05, 5.48) and 1.67(AOR=1.67; 95%CI=1.02, 2.72) times increased odds of wasting, respectively. Moreover, male and unimmunized children were found to be higher odds of stunting and underweight at the same time.

Conclusion: In the study area the prevalence of child undernutrition was high compared to WHO criteria. Improving household income, dietary diversity, access of clean water and immunization coverage were recommended to improve nutritional status of children in the study area.